The Jewish presence in Libourne seems to date at least from the 16th century, and was authenticated when the existence of a prayer room was mentioned in the rue de Périgueux in the 18th century. Nevertheless, the place of worship where the Jews met in the following century was in a house in the rue Lamothe.
In 1840, the Jewish population of Libourne was estimated at 77 out of a total population of 9714 inhabitants. The religious leaders were Jacob Lopez and Lazare Brunswick.
The inauguration of the Libourne synagogue dates from 1847. More precisely, it was inaugurated on the 3rd of September, the day of the celebration of Rosh Hashanah, during a service led by David Marx, Chief Rabbi of Bordeaux.
Closed in 1912, the synagogue remained closed most of the time, especially during the Second World War. The Torah scrolls were kept in a house in Bordeaux and then returned in 1950.
Following the arrival of Jews from North Africa in the 1960s, the synagogue was reopened in 1962.