The Jewish presence in Aquila seems to date from the end of the 13th century. Ladislaus, the King of Naples, allowed two Jewish families to settle there and carry on business activities. Authorizations were issued and then withdrawn over the centuries according to the variable-geometry leniency of political and religious leaders. Thus, in 1488, following particularly hostile sermons against them, only two Jewish families remained in the city. In 1511, the Jews were expelled from the kingdom of Naples, of which Aquila was then a part.
A few Jewish families relocated there in the 20th century. Following the earthquake of 2009 which had disastrous effects on the city, the Jewish communities of Italy, and that of Rome in particular, got involved in helping the victims.