A medieval town, Mondolfo was famous for its castle built by the architect Francesco di Giorgio Martini, which was destroyed in the 19th century. The town was also an important economic and cultural centre over the centuries.
The fire that destroyed the municipal archives in 1517 makes it impossible to know exactly when the Jewish presence in Mondolfo began. A commercial transaction between the municipality and a Jewish person is mentioned in 1520.
There are records of the presence of Jews in the area near the old Via Giraldi Della Rovere, now called Via Fratelli Rosselli. In this street one can still see some very old buildings. One of them with two entrances was probably an old synagogue and connects with Piazza del Comune.
The situation of the Jews improved at the end of the 16th century, especially during the reign of Francesco Maria II (1549 – 1631), who was the last Duke of Urbino. When the Duchy came under the control of the Papal States in 1625, many of the Jews of Mondolfo migrated to the ghettos of Pesaro and Senigallia.
Sources : Marche Jewish Itineraries by Maria Luisa Moscati Benigni