Denmark

Copenhagen

Grand Synagogue of Copenhagen

Krystalgade 12, 1172 København K, Danemark

Royal Library of Copenhagen

Søren Kierkegaards Plads 1, Copenhagen

Freedom Museum of Copenhagen

Churchillparken 7, 1263 København K, Danemark

Jewish Museum of Copenhagen

Proviantpassagen 6 DK-1218 Copenhagen

Mosaisk Nordre Begravelsesplads

Cementerio judío de Copenhague, Guldbergsgade 8, 2200 Commune de Copenhague, Danemark

Jewish cemetery of Vestre

Cementerio de Vestre, Vestre Kirkegårds Allé 15, 2450 Commune de Copenhague, Danemark

Museum designed by architect Daniel Libeskind reflecting the contiuous happy life of Danish Jews around the Mitsvah theme
Danish Museum Interior. Photo courtesy of Studio Daniel Libeskind – Wikipedia

The Jewish community of Copenhagen has been active since the end of the 17th century. Today, most of Denmark’s 7000 Jews live in Copenhagen.

Abraham Salomon of Rausnitz was its first rabbi, appointed in 1687. Six years later, a Jewish cemetery was established in Mollegade. Destroyed by a fire in 1795, no synagogue was active until a liberal one was built in 1833 in Krystalgade. Years later, orthodox and Sephardic places of worship were also opened.

The Royal Decree issued in 1814 gave Jews born in Denmark the same rights as for all other citizens. Philanthropic institutions, schools, old age homes have been opened since 1825. The number and presence varied then, according to historical events, especially the Holocaust.

When the huge majority of the Danish Jews and their relatives, about 8000 persons, were saved by the courageous acts of Denmark’s royal, political and religious authorities as well as every level of society.

Most of the 3000 Polish Jews who fled to Denmark during the 1970s settled in Copenhagen.

Great synagogue built in 1833, inspired by Greek and Roman architecture
Great Synagogue of Copenhagen. Photo by Jerrye et Roy Klotz MD – Wikipedia

Marking the continuous blossoming of the Jewish community in Denmark, Queen Margrethe II attended in 1983 the service in Copenhagen’s synagogue, celebrating its 150th anniversary.

The following year, she participated in the celebrations of the Jewish community’s 300th anniversary in Copenhagen. In 1993, the Queen also participated in the events celebrating the 50th anniversary of the country’s rescue operation.

Its famous  Great synagogue of Krystalgade was built in 1833 by the architect Gustav Friedrich Hetsch. It is defined by an architecture centering on an ark, influenced by Greek and Roman models.

Hebrew inscription on the outside wall of the Great synagogue of Copenhagen
Copenhagen Synagogue. Photo by Harvey Barrison – Wikipedia

The synagogue can welcome 900 worshippers. The community center is located next to the synagogue. All information about the synagogue is available at the Mosaiske Troessamfund, which houses a variety of Jewish associations.

Mosaiske organizes visits of the synagogue from April to September and also provides Shabbat hospitality groups. An orthodox Community prays at the Makhzikei ha-Das Synagogue.

Among the social institutions, there’s a Jewish day school and an old age home. Religious and cultural organizations are also present in the city.

Portrait du roi Christian X, symbole du courage de tout un peuple pendant la Shoah dans le sauvetage des juifs danois
Heroic king Christian X of Denmark. Photo by Library of Congress – Wikipedia

The  Freedom Museum of Danish Resistance, which houses a important section devoted to the history of the Resistance movement and the Shoah. It was closed due to a fire on April 28, 2013. The damage caused was of such proportions that the museum had to be closed.

A new exhibition building was raised where it was located and is scheduled to open in 2020. Meanwhile, the photo archives can be seen on their website.

Designed by Daniel Libeskind, the  Jewish Museum of Copenhagen presents Jewish life in Denmark through 400 years. The particular design of the Jewish Museum was influenced by the rescue operation during the Holocaust. The word “mitzvah” constitutes the emblem and concept of the museum. Therefore, the museum was designed around the courage demonstrated by the Danes.

It marks the positive experience which sums up Jewish life in Denmark and the special act of goodwill undertaken in 1943 by the population.

Entry of the Jewish Museum of Copenhagen marking the link between the old and the new aspects of the life of Danish Jews
Danish Jewish Museum entrance. Photo courtesy of the Museum – Wikipedia

As explains architect Daniel Libeskind: “After entering the exhibition proper, the visitors are in a space constructed of a wooden floor with slightly sloping planes representing the four planes of discourse.

The entire exhibition space is illuminated by a luminous stained glass window that is a microcosm of Mitzvah transforming light across the day. The Danish Jewish Museum will become a destination which will reveal the deep tradition and its future in the unprecedented space of Mitzvah.

The intertwining of the old structure of the vaulted brick space of the Royal Library and the unexpected connection to the unique exhibition space creates a dynamic dialogue between architecture of the past and of the future – the newness of the old and the agelessness of the new.”

The Royal Library houses many documents related to Danish history among them the Simonsen archives
The Royal Danish Library. Photo by Julian Herzog – Wikipedia

The  Royal Library contains the Simonsen Library ewhich possesse an interesting Judaica section.

Digital facsimiles of the manuscripts acquires in 1931 from Professor David Simonsen are available for the public. Among the items which can be consulted, one can find a judeo-arabic letter from the 12th century and manuscripts from all periods since.

Its most famous item is probably “Gemma’s prayerbook”, a Hebrew book written for the widow Gemma in Modena in 1531.

The oldest cemetery in Scandinavia, it's located in the center of Copenhagen and can be visited from April until September
Jewish cemetery. Photo by Ramblersen – Wikipedia

Documents came from 20 different countries, in 15 languages, which have required some extensive handling of all those archives. And quite some time to ensure it would be handled in an apropriate manner. The total of the works constitute about 26000 processes of digitalization.

There are two Jewish cemeteries. The  ancient one in the area of Mollegade, dating for four centuries. This cemetery can be accessed from April to September on Sundays, Mondays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. And the  new cemetery in the area of Valby. The latter is open every day during daytime, except on Shabbat and Jewish holidays.

Interview with Janus Møller Jensen, Director of the Danish Jewish Museum

Danish Jewish Museum. Photo courtesy of the Museum

Jguideeurope: How is the courageous saving of the Jews during the Holocaust presented?

Janus Møller Jensen: In several ways. First and foremost in our spectacular architecture designed by Daniel Libeskind. Our entire room tells the story of flight over sea and the uncertainty of trying to find one’s way. In many ways, the unique architecture is one of the key objects of the museum. However, we also tell the story of the people that weren’t saved, and instead imprisoned in KZ-Theresienstadt.

Can you present us three particular objects shown at the museum?

1. Sometimes the biggest stories come in the smallest objects. In the museum we exhibit a bed bug from Theresienstadt, a tiny object but the perfect vessel for telling the story about the conditions in the KZ-camps, and also the story of the Danish Jews captured. The stories about how the Danish society and the Danish Jewish community struggles with the processing the traumas of the war, being refugees or imprisoned. Because they survived telling the story of the difficulties of coming back has been hard.

Pennant. Photo courtesy of the Danish Jewish Museum

2. A star object is our exhibition and collection is our silver mini replica of the Ark of the Covenant. Originally made as a cigar box for a prominent director of a big Danish Bank in 1909. It represents both religion in its motif, the assimilation of the Danish Jews in its function and last it is recognizable for Jews as well as non-Jews, being iconic from mythology as well as popular culture. It opens so many doors for storytelling.

3. The year being 2021 and object that comes to mind is a Corona typewriter. The name in itself is recognizable for visitors post-2020, but questions always invite to a dialogue, and this machine belonged to a yiddish writer called Pinches Welner. He immigrated to Denmark in early 1900’s with other eastern European Jews. In Copenhagen he was part of the yiddish cultural environment and part of the yiddish evening school, established as a reaction of not being allowed to teach the langue in the established Jewish School by the exiting Jewish community.

Arc of the Covenant. Photo courtesy of the Danish Jewish Museum

Was there an encounter with a visitor or event participant which particularly moved you?

Talking to a visitor from America who had fled from Russia in the 1990’s, I was asked who so many Jews were saved. I replied they were naturally helped by neighbors. She looked me in the eyes and said “your neighbors don’t naturally help you, they are the ones that turn you in.”.

This conversation is a constant reminder of the need to balance the story telling of Denmark during the war. 99% survived Holocaust, but no flight is free, and war always has a price also for the survivors.