There are four cities in the Languedoc region that have a particular interest for Jewish culture.

The presence of a Jewish community in Provence and Languedoc dates back to the first century. An oil lamp with a menorah from this period was excavated in Orgon in 1967.

During the middle-ages, this community enjoyed their proximity with the Spanish and Portuguese communities. This can explain the expansion of the communities of Narbonne and Montpellier.

Jews are expelled from Languedoc in the fourteenth century.

The community revived in the twentieth century.